A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system, which can result in structural, biochemical, or electrical abnormalities in the brain, spinal cord, or other nerves. Symptoms of neurological disorders include loss of sensation, seizures, paralysis, muscle weakness, pain, and altered levels of consciousness. Some of the prominent neurological diseases are classified as epilepsy, brain tumour, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, bipolar disorder, Bell’s palsy, paralysis, and dementia.
Epilepsy is a central nervous system neurological disorder in which brain activity becomes abnormal, causing seizures or periods of unusual behaviour, sensations, and sometimes loss of awareness. Epilepsy is usually diagnosed after a person has had more than one seizure. The causes of epilepsy typically involve some form of injury to the brain. People with epilepsy experience recurrent seizures that occur because of a sudden surge of the electrical activity of the brain. The typical warning signs before an epilepsy seizure are sleep disruption, nausea, headache, irritability, depression, numbness on one side of the body, etc.
A brain tumour is a mass or growth of abnormal cells that develop within the brain due to uncontrolled cell division. Brain tumours can be cancerous (malignant), or non-cancerous (benign). Treatment may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. If seizures occur, anticonvulsant medication may be needed. Headaches, vomiting, seizures, nausea, hearing problems, behavioural changes are some of the common signs of brain tumours.
Parkinson’s disease is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. It is a progressive nervous system disorder that affects the nerve cells in the brain that produce dopamine. Many different symptoms are associated with Parkinson’s disease, and the more common symptoms include muscle rigidity, tremors, and changes in speech. Currently, there is no cure for Parkinson’s disease. But treatments are available to help relieve the symptoms and maintain quality of life.
Alzheimer’s is a degenerative disease of the brain that leads to a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in older people, and memory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and gradually worsens over time. The most common early symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events. As the disease advances, symptoms can include problems with language, disorientation, mood swings, and behavioral issues. Advanced stage symptoms of Alzheimer’s vary from person to person, and there is a cure for this disease as of now. Medication can temporarily reduce some symptoms or slow down the progression of the condition in some people.
Bipolar disorder is a mental disorder characterized by periods of depression and abnormally elevated moods. While suffering from bipolar disorder, an individual behaves or feels unusually energetic, happy, or irritable. The patient often makes impulsive decisions with little regard for the consequences and usually experiences a negative attitude towards life. Other mental health issues, such as anxiety disorders and panic attacks, are commonly associated with bipolar disorder. Environmental and genetic factors play a crucial role in bipolar disorder, and admission to a rehabilitation centre may be required to treat the patient.